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Ocarina of Time's dynamic content is loaded on the "main heap"

Allocation Structures

There are at least two different structures used to manage dynamic memory allocation in the Zelda 64 engine.

Free List

The free list structure allows for memory to be allocated and reclaimed arbitrarily. The main disadvantage to free lists are "memory bubbles", or spaces with gaps of free space that can sometimes be too small to be allocated to, that can pop up over time. To mitigate this, longer living/less volatile data is allocated to the tail end (higher address) of the free list.

Free List Reference Structure

Main Heap Free List Reference
NTSC 1.08012BAA0
NTSC 1.18012BC60
PAL 1.180129B00

The free list reference "owns" an instance of a free list. It structure seems to be in the following form, but it's full length is unknown.

/* 0x00 */ void* HeapStartA; // pointer to the allocated heap space, and pointer to the first node in the heap
/* 0x04 */ void* HeapStartB; // pointer passed in when allocating the free list. This is possibly used for re-mapping, but is the same as A
/* 0x08 */ s32 size; // is the size of the heap.
/* 0x0c */ s8 unk; // this appears to be incremented when an object can't be allocated.

Free List Node

The free list node is 0x10 bytes long, with an optional extra 0x18 bytes of data for debugging purposes, for a total allocated size of either 0x10 in the Gamecube and iQue releases, or 0x30 bytes in the N64 releases and the Debug Rom.

Start End Size Type Identification Description
0000 0002 2 s16 Node Start "7373" magic number, indicating the start of a node. Used for checking for heap corruption.
0002 0004 2 s16 Block Free for Re-allocation Denotes whether the block is free for re-allocation. (0: No, 1: Yes)
0004 0008 4 s32 Size of Memory Block Size of the memory block being managed. Doesn't include node itself.
0008 000C 4 ptr Pointer to Next Node Pointer to the next node in the heap.
000C 0010 4 ptr Pointer to Previous Node Pointer to the previous node in the heap.
End of Node for Some Versions
0010 0014 4 ptr Pointer to Name of Node Source
0014 0018 4 s32 [?]
0018 001C 4 s32 Thread ID Thread responsible for creating the node.
001C 0020 4 ptr Pointer to Free List Reference Struct Pointer to the free list reference structure (or head).
0020 0028 8 OSTime creationTime Time the node was created.


Debug Rom

See also: Function Map

NTSC 1.0

800005A0 //???, low level function, calls 800A1C50

800A1C50 //Main boot routine, calls 80051B50
1C54 LUI	V0, 0x8012
1C58 ADDIU	V0, V0, 0xD2A0 (V0 = 8011D2A0)
1C5C SW 	RA, 0x001C(SP)
1C94 JAL	800AD410 //DD boot routine
1CC4 JAL	800AD488 //Zeroes 80121210 if 80121211 is zero
1CFC JAL	800CD390 //Allocates main heap
1D04 JAL	80051B50

800AD410 //Disk Drive boot routine 
//called by A1C50
//Writes to 80121211, possibly stores whether the dd can be loaded from
D418 LUI	T6, 0x8012
D41C LBU	T6, 0x1210(T6)
D420 LUI	V0, 0x00B9
D424 ADDIU	A1, V0, 0xAD30 //A1 = B8AD30, or the disk drive code file start
D428 BNEZ	T6, 800AD478 
D42C LUI	A0, 0x801C
D430 LUI	T7, 0x00BA
D434 ADDIU	T7, T7, 0xDA40 //T7 = B9DA40, or disk drive code file end
D438 SUBU	A2, T7, A1 //A2 = file size

D43C JAL	800000DF0 //DMA read function
D440 ADDIU	A0, A0, 0x6E80 //A0 = 801C6E80, or the heap start?

80051B50 //???, calls 800CDA20
1B58 JAL	800CDA20
1B5C ADDIU	A0, R0, 0x15D4 //Size of block?

800CD320 //? Checks state of 80105430
D320 LUI	V0, 0x8010
D324 LW 	V0, 0x5430(V0)//load from 80105430

D32C SW 	S0, 0x0014(SP)
D330 SW 	S1, 0x0018(SP)
D334 LUI	S0, 0x8010
D338 SW 	RA, 0x001C(SP)
D33C ADDIU	S0, S0, 0x5430 //S0 = 80105430
D340 BEQ	V0, R0, 0x800CD374
D344 OR 	S1, R0, R0 //S1 = 0

D388 JR 	RA

800CD390 //Allocates main heap 
//A0 = Block start (801C6E60)
//A1 = Block size (001EE1A0)
//starts by moving A0/A1 into A1/A2
D3A4 LUI	A0, 0x8013
D3A8 JAL	800CDD90
D3AC ADDIU	A0, 0xBAA0 //A0 = 8012BAA0
D3B0 JAL	800CD320

800CDD90 //Creates a new free list with one node, and attaches the list to some structure
//A0 = External Ptr (8012BAA0)
//A1 = Free List Start ptr (801C6E60)
//A2 = Size (001EE1A0)
DD90 ADDIU	V0, A1, 0x000F
DD94 ADDIU	AT, R0, 0xFFF0 //AT = -0x10
DD98 AND	V0, V0, AT //V0 is aligned
DD9C SUBU	T6, V0, A1 //Store delta
DDA0 SUBU	A2, A2, T6 //if not aligned, sub size?
DDA4 AND	A2, A2, AT //Round down size to nearest 0x10
DDA8 ADDIU	T7, A2, 0xFFD0 //T2 = allocated block size - size of mem ll node
DDAC ADDIU	T8, R0, 0x0001 //T1 = 1, block is free for subdivision
DDB0 ADDIU	T9, R0, 0x7373 //Mem LL "header"?
//populate the node
DDB4 SW 	R0, 0x0008(V0)
DDB8 SW 	R0, 0x000C(V0)
DDBC SW 	T7, 0x0004(V0)
DDC0 SH 	T8, 0x0002(V0)
DDC4 SH 	T9, 0x0000(V0)
DDC8 SW 	V0, 0x0000(A0) //store the re-mapped address
DDCC SW 	A1, 0x0004(A0) //stores the original address sent into the function
DDD4 SW 	A2, 0x0008(A0) //stores block size

800CDA20 //mem, Allocates block to head of the main heap
//A0 = Space to allocate
//V0 = Ptr to allocated space
DA28 SW 	A0, 0x0020(SP) //Store allocate space for later
DA2C JAL	80003CC0 // osSetIntMask(OS_IM_NONE), disables interrupts
DA30 ADDIU	A0, R0, 0x0001
DA34 LUI	A0, 0x8013
DA3C ADDIU	A0, A0, 0xBAA0 //A0 = 12BAA0
DA40 JAL	800CE060
DA44 LW 	A1, 0x0020(SP) //A1 = allocate space
DA4C jal	8003CC0 // osSetIntMask, restores interrupt mask state

0x800CE17C – allocate at tail end
A0 = reference struct
A1 = size

CE17C		addiu $sp, $sp, 0xffe0 // allocate stack space for local shit
CE180 		sw $ra, 0x14(sp) // save return address
CE184		sw $a0, 0x20(sp) // save arg 0
CE188		lw $a2, 0x00(a0) // derereference first arg: a2 = node
CE18C		addiu $t0, $r0, 0xfff0 // $t0 = -0x10
CE190		addiu $t6, $a1, 0x000f // add new size to 0x0f
CE194 		lw $v0, 0x08(a2) // v0 = node->next
CE198		and $a1, $t6, $t0 // new size is now 16 byte aligned
CE19C		or $a3, $r0, $r0 // a3 = 0
// ce1a0 – ce1b8, a2 is the furthest node. This appears to be a traversal
CE1A0 		beq $v0, $r0, 0x800CE1B8 // if next is null then branch
CE1A4 		addiu $t9, $a1, 0x000f // t9 = aligned size + 0x0f
CE1A8		or $a2, $v0, $r0 // a2 = next node
CE1AC		lw $v0, 0x0008($v0) // v0 = next node in sequence, looped
CE1B0		bnel $v0, $r0, 0x800CE1AC // this is a loop that continues getting the next node until it reaches the final node. 
CE1B4		or $a2, $v0, $r0 // a2 = last working node
CE1B8		beq $a2, $r0, 0x800CE278 // this appears to be the case when there are no nodes

// a2 now has the last node in the list

CE1BC		and $a0, $t9, $t0 // umm its aligned again I guess. What was that for?
CE1C0		lh $t8, 0x02(a2) // t8 = whether last node is allocated
CE1C4		beql $t8, $r0, 0x800CE270 // last node is allocated already. 
CE1C8		lw $a2, 0x0c(a2) // branch delay. Traverse backwards with a2
CE1CC		lw $v0, 0x04(a2) // v0 = block size
CE1D0		sltu $at, $v0, $a1 // set $at if block size is less than aligned size
CE1D4		bnel $at, $r0, 0x800CE270 // block size is bad, go to 270
CE1D8		lw $a2, 0x000c(a2) // branch delay, traverse back a2

// This code appears to create the new node assuming the current pointer is open.

CE1DC		addiu $a0, $a0, 0x30 // add size of header, a0 = size with header
CE1E0 		sltu $at, $a0, $v0 // set $at if the size is good.
CE1E4		beq $at, $r0, 0x800CE22C // branch if size is bad

CE1E8		addu $t1, $a2, $v0 // t1 = node location + size allocated
CE1EC		lw $t2, 0x0008(a2) // t2 = next node
CE1F0		subu $v1, $t1, $a1 // v1 = t1 – aligned size; would be location of new node
CE1F4		addiu $t3, $r0, 0x7373 // t3 = marker

// v1 appears to be the location of a new node

CE1F8		sw $a2, 0x000c(v1) // a2 is now previous node
CE1FC		sw $a1, 0x0004(v1) // aligned size is size
CE200		sh $t3, 0(v1) // marker
CE204		sw $t2, 8(v1) // next node is current node’s next
CE208		lw $t4, 0x0004(a2) // get previous nodes size
CE20C		sw $v1, 0x08(a2) // a2’s next = newn ode
CE210		subu $t5, $t4, $a0 // subtract old node with new node size
CE214		sw $t5, 0x0004(a2) // set new size
CE218		lw $a3, 0x0008(v1) // current node’s next n a3
CE21C		or $a2, $v1, $r0 // a2 = new node 
CE220		beq $a3, $r0, 0x800CE22C // ? haven’t continued, its set to 0

// a2 appears to be the node created in this context

CE224		nop
CE228		sw $v1, 0x000c(a3) // whats a3?
CE22C		sh $r0, 0x0002(ac) // set as taken
CE230		sw $r0, 0x0010(a2) // debug info, irrelevant
CE234		sw $r0, 0x0010(a2) // same
CE238		sw $a2, 0x001c(sp) // save node as local var

// a0 = 0
// a1 = size without header
// a2 = node
// a3 = ? (not set if everything goes smoothly)

CE23C		jal 0x80003ca0 // weird function. If a0 is 0 it returns *((*0x80006340) + 0x14), otherwise it returns a0 addressed with 0x14. Oh wait, I think it’s the current thread
CE240		or $a0, $r0, $r0 // branch delay a0 = 0, zero

CE244		lw $a2, 0x001C(sp) // restore node
CE248		sw $v0, 0x0018(a2) // save thread id
CE24C		lw $t6, 0x0020(sp) // restore original first arg
CE250		jal 0x800048c0 // fuckin weird function, I think it stores os time
CE254		sw $t6, 0x001c(a2) // save reference structure
CE258		lw $a2, 0x001C(sp) // restore node again? Lol
CE25C		sw $v0, 0x0020(a2) // time creation
CE260		sw $v1, 0x0024(a2) // same
CE264		beq $r0, $r0, 0x800ce278 // unconditional branch to ce278
CE268		addiu $a3, $a2, 0x0030 // branch delay, a3 now has location of place	
// jumped to if the last node is bad

CE270		bnel $a2, $r0, 0x800CE1C4 // CE1C4 traverses backwards if the node is allocated. The “is allocated” is stored in t8
CE274		lh $t8, 0x0002(a2) // branch delay. loads “is allocated” of current node in t8
CE278		bnez $a3, 0x800CE2A0 // a3 should store the location of the node I think. If its not 0 (no node found), go to ce2a0
CE27C		lui $v0, 0x8010
CE280		addiu $v0, $v0, 0x5450 // li $v0, 0x80105450

// increment 0x80095450

CE284		lw $t7, 0(v0) // t7 = *0x80095450
CE288		lw $t9, 0x0020(sp) // load reference struct again
CE28C		addiu $t8, $t7, 0x0001 // u8 = 1 + *0x80095450
CE290		sw $t8, 0(v0) 

// increment 0xc in the ref structure

CE294		lbu $t1, 0x000c(t9) // load reference struct + 0xc
CE298		addiu $t2, $t1, 0x0001 // increment 
CE29C		sb $t2, 0x000c(t9)

// final stretch

CE2A0		lw $ra, 0x0014(sp) // restore return address
CE2A4		addiu $sp, $sp, 0x0020 // restore stack
CE2A8		or $v0, $a3, $r0 // v0 = a3, location of node
CE2AC		jr $ra // return

800CE060 //mem, malloc
//Allocates memory on free list. Called before 800CE2B4 func
//A0 = ptr to free list reference
//A1 = space size, not adjusted for alignment?
//V0 = ptr to free space
E06C LW 	A2, 0x0000(A0)//load first word in struct
E070 ADDIU	T0, R0, 0xFFF0	//T0 = -0x10
E074 ADDIU	T6, A1, 0x000F
E084 LH 	T8, 0x0002 (A2)	//load "freed memory" byte, seek for free space
E0A0 //begin to allocate the mem node

800CE2B4 //mem, free
// Marks a memory node as being free for re-use, and combines if next to free nodes
//void osFree(void *region, void *addr);
//A0 = ptr region (e.g. 8011BEF0, 8012BAA0)
//A1 = Pointer to memory node's allocated space (rather than the node itself)
E2BC BEQ	A1, R0, 800CE3D4
E2C0 OR 	A3, A0, R0 //A3 = 12BAA0 (what is this space)
E2C4 LH 	T6, 0xFFD0(A1) //T6 = ? or 0x7373
E2C8 ADDIU	AT, R0, 0x7373
E2CC ADDIU	A1, A1, 0xFFD0 //A1 -= 0x30, A1 points to mem node
E2D0 BEQ	T6, AT, 800CE2E8 //if the mem node is defined, branch
E2D4 LUI	A0, 0x3F
E2D8 JAL	80003CC0
E2DC ORI	A0, A0, 0xFF01 //A0 = 003FFF01
E2E0 BEQ	R0, R0, 800CE3D8 //jump to function end
E2E4 LW 	RA, 0x0014(SP)
E2E8 LH 	T7, 0x0002(A1) //T7 = whether node is free or not
E2EC ADDIU	T8, R0, 0x0001 
E2F0 OR 	A0, R0, R0 //A0 = 0
E2F4 BEQL	T7, R0, 800CE314
E2F8 SH 	T8, 0x0002(A1) //Mark mem node A1's memory as being freed
E314 SW 	R0, 0x0010(A1) //zero out something? in the mem node's structure
E318 SW 	R0, 0x0014(A1) //zero out something? in the mem node's structure
E31C SW 	A3, 0x0028(SP) //store reference node on stack
E320 JAL	80003CA0 //dunno what this does
E324 SW 	A1, 0x0018(SP)
E328 LW 	A1, 0x0018(SP)
E32C LW 	A3, 0x0028(SP)
E330 SW 	V0, 0x0018(A1) //save some number here to the ll
E334 JAL 	800048C0
E338 SW 	A3, 0x001C(A1) //save main ref
E33C LW 	A1, 0x0018(SP) //A1 = actor space mem node ptr
E340 LW 	A0, 0x0008(A1) //A0 = mem node next ptr
E344 SW 	V0, 0x0020(A1) //dunno what this is still
E348 SW 	V1, 0x0024(A1) //store instruction count
E34C BEQL	A0, R0, 800CE394 //branch if mem node next is null
E350 LW 	V1, 0x000C(A1) //if branched, V1 = mem node next ptr
E354 LH 	T9, 0x0002(A0) //T9 = next node's free state
E358 OR 	V0, A0, R0 //V0 = curnode->next
E35C BEQL	T9, R0, 800CE394 //branch if next node is allocated
E360 LW 	V1, 0x000C(A1) //if branched, V1 = mem node next ptr
//next node is not allocating space
E364 LW 	V1, 0x0008(A0) // v1 = mem node next's next node (curnode->next->next)
E368 BEQL	V1, R0, 800CE378 //branch if memnode->next->next == null
E36C LW 	T0, 0x0004(A1) //T0 = cur mem node's allocated size
E378 LW 	T1, 0x0004(V0) //T1 = next mem node's allocated size
E37C ADDU	T2, T0, T1 //T2 = cur + next mem node's allocated size
E380 ADDIU	T3, T2, 0x0030 //T3 = cur + next mem node's allocated size + node itself space
E384 SW 	T3, 0x0004(A1) //update cur node's (un)allocated size
E388 LW 	T4, 0x0008(V0) //T4 = (curnode->next->next ptr)
E38C SW 	T4, 0x0008(A1) //curnode->next = curnode->next->next
E390 LW 	V1, 0x000C(A1) //V1 = curnode->prev
E394 BEQL	V1, R0, 800CE3D8 //branch if curnode->prev == null
E398 LW 	RA, 0x0014(SP)
E39C LH 	T5, 0x0002(V1) //T5 = curnode->prev.isfree
E3A0 BEQL	T5, R0, 800CE3D8 //branch if node is not free
E3A4 LW 	RA, 0x0014(SP)